Global Warming
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Ocean Conditions on Weather Underground

This is the chest of global warming knowledge. Please feel free to add to it or correct previous info by: clicking the "edit" button below, then copying significant text (which is allowed under fair usage) and then add a link by pressing on the first chain button and typing in a name for this info followed by replacing the example.com with the real URL address. That way, if the machine that has this info is scuttled (link goes dead) we still have the most significant parts of the revealing text and where we found it. Please place a date where you got it, so it can be paired with the history page. Then click save one time. It will take it a minute to upload your changes.

The Overwhelming Evidence

Global Warming is an accepted scientific theory. Seen on wikipedia on Dec 8, 2009: Wikipedia - Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) between the start and the end of the 20th century.[1][A] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation.[1] The IPCC also concludes that variations in natural phenomena such as solar radiation and volcanoes produced most of the warming from pre-industrial times to 1950 and had a small cooling effect afterward.[2][3] These basic conclusions have been endorsed by more than 40 scientific societies and academies of science,[B] including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries.[4]
Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century.[1] The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. Some other uncertainties include how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. Most studies focus on the period up to the year 2100. However, warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if emissions stop, because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.[5][6]
An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.[7] The continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice is expected, with warming being strongest in the Arctic. Other likely effects include increases in the intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields.
Political and public debate continues regarding climate change, and what actions (if any) to take in response. The available options are mitigation to reduce further emissions; adaptation to reduce the damage caused by warming; and, more speculatively, geoengineering to reverse global warming. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The Big Melting Time Bomb

Greenland Evidence of severe ice melting mass loss, of course, trumps any argument about if it's really hotter or colder. If Greenland's ice cap breaks up, worldwide average sea levels will go up by twenty feet.

Greenland's Fragile Ice Cap

If the entire 2.85 million km³ of ice were to melt, it would lead to a global sea level rise of 7.2 m (23.6 ft).[2] This would inundate most coastal cities in the World and remove several small island countries from the face of Earth, since island nations such as Tuvalu and Maldives have a maximum altitude below or just above this number…Positioned in the Arctic, the Greenland ice sheet is especially vulnerable to global warming. Arctic climate is now rapidly warming and much larger Arctic shrinkage changes are projected.[4] The Greenland Ice Sheet has experienced record melting in recent years and is likely to contribute substantially to sea level rise as well as to possible changes in ocean circulation in the future. The area of the sheet that experiences melting has increased about 16% from 1979 (when measurements started) to 2002 (most recent data). The area of melting in 2002 broke all previous records.[4] The number of glacial earthquakes at the Helheim Glacier and the northwest Greenland glaciers increased substantially between 1993 and 2005.[5] In 2006, estimated monthly changes in the mass of Greenland's ice sheet suggest that it is melting at a rate of about 239 cubic kilometres (57.3 cubic miles) per year. A more recent study, based on reprocessed and improved data between 2003 and 2008, reports an average trend of 195 cubic kilometres (46.7 cubic miles) per year.[6] These measurements came from the US space agency's GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite, launched in 2002, as reported by BBC.[7] Using data from two ground-observing satellites, ICESAT and ASTER, a study published in Geophysical Research Letters (September 2008) shows that nearly 75 percent of the loss of Greenland's ice can be traced back to small coastal glaciers.[8]

Modelling results of the sea-level rise under different warming scenarios. The curve labels refer to the mean annual temperature rise over Greenland by 3000 AD. Note that the temperature projections shown are greater than globally averaged temperatures (by a factor of 1.2 to 3.1)[2]
If the entire 2.85 million km³ of ice were to melt, global sea levels would rise 7.2 m (23.6 ft.).[2] Recently, fears have grown that continued global warming will make the Greenland Ice Sheet cross a threshold where long-term melting of the ice sheet is inevitable. Climate models project that local warming in Greenland will exceed 3 degrees Celsius during this century. Ice sheet models project that such a warming would initiate the long-term melting of the ice sheet, leading to a complete melting of the ice sheet (over centuries), resulting in a global sea level rise of about seven meters.[4] Such a rise would inundate almost every major coastal city in the World. How fast the melt would eventually occur is a matter of discussion. According to IPCC,[2] the expected 3 degrees warming at the end of the century would, if kept from rising further, result in about 1 meter sea level rise over the next millennium (see image to the left).
Some scientists have cautioned that these rates of melting as overly optimistic as they assume a linear, rather than erratic, progression. James Hansen has argued that multiple positive feedbacks could lead to nonlinear ice sheet disintegration much faster than claimed by the IPCC. According to a 2007 paper, "we find no evidence of millennial lags between forcing and ice sheet response in paleoclimate data. An ice sheet response time of centuries seems probable, and we cannot rule out large changes on decadal time-scales once wide-scale surface melt is underway."[9]
The melt zone, where summer warmth turns snow and ice into slush and melt ponds of meltwater, has been expanding at an accelerating rate in recent years. When the meltwater seeps down through cracks in the sheet, it accelerates the melting and, in some areas, allow the ice to slide more easily over the bedrock below, speeding its movement to the sea. Besides contributing to global sea level rise, the process adds freshwater to the ocean, which may disturb ocean circulation and thus regional climate.[4]
Researchers monitoring daily satellite images have discovered that a massive 11-square-mile (29-square-kilometer) piece of the Petermann glacier in northern Greenland broke away between July 10 and July 24, 2008. The last major ice loss to Petermann occurred when the glacier lost 33 square miles (86 square kilometers) of floating ice between 2000 and 2001. Between 2001 and 2005, a massive breakup of Sermeq Kujalleq erased 36 square miles (94 square kilometers) from the ice field and raised the awareness of worldwide of glacial response to global climate change.[10]
[edit]Ice sheet acceleration

Two mechanisms have been utilized to explain the change in velocity of the Greenland Ice Sheets outlet glaciers. The first is the enhanced meltwater effect, which relies on additional surface melting, funneled through moulins reaching the glacier base and reducing the friction through a higher basal water pressure. (It should be noted that not all meltwater is retained in the ice sheet and some moulins drain into the ocean, with varying rapidity.) This idea, was observed to be the cause of a brief seasonal acceleration of up to 20 % on Sermeq Kujalleq in 1998 and 1999 at Swiss Camp.[11] (The acceleration lasted two-three months and was less than 10% in 1996 and 1997 for example. They offered a conclusion that the “coupling between surface melting and ice-sheet flow provides a mechanism for rapid, large-scale, dynamic responses of ice sheets to climate warming”. Examination of recent rapid supra-glacial lake drainage documented short term velocity changes due to such events, but they had little significance to the annual flow of the large glaciers outlet glaciers.[12] The second mechanism is a force imbalance at the calving front due to thinning causing a substantial non-linear response. In this case an imbalance of forces at the calving front propagates up-glacier. Thinning causes the glacier to be more buoyant, reducing frictional back forces, as the glacier becomes more afloat at the calving front. The reduced friction due to greater buoyancy allows for an increase in velocity. This is akin to letting off the emergency brake a bit. The reduced resistive force at the calving front is then propagated up glacier via longitudinal extension because of the backforce reduction.[13][14] For ice streaming sections of large outlet glaciers (in Antarctica as well) there is always water at the base of the glacier that helps lubricate the flow. This water is, however, generally from basal processes, not surface melting.

The Coverup

Bush Climate Team Still Impacting The Debate, Report Finds
by Nick Pinto
As the next round of UN climate change negotiations begin in Copenhagen, a new report describes how 22 Bush-era officials are still influencing the climate debate, many of them as registered lobbyists for industry.

James L. Connaughton, President Bush’s chief environmental advisor from 2001 to 2009. Among the former officials listed in the report from watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington are the following:

Philip Cooney, chief of staff for Bush's Council on Environmental Quality from 2001 to 2005, joined Exxon-Mobil in 2005. Cooney has come full circle — from working for industry as a lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, then to the Bush Administration, now back working for industry. He resigned as chief of staff at the CEQ after reports surfaced that he had watered down several climate change reports. An investigation by the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee found that the "Bush Administration [had] engaged in a systematic effort to manipulate climate change science and mislead policymakers and the public about the dangers of global warming."

Khary Cauthen, who succeeded Cooney as chief of staff for the CEQ, is now a registered lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute.

James L. Connaughton served as President Bush's chief environmental adviser as chair of the CEQ from 2001 to 2009. Since then, he has been vice president for corporate affairs and environmental policy at Constellation Energy.

"These alumni of the Bush climate team continue to shape and confuse the debate over global warming," said Melanie Sloan, CREW's executive director. "They may have changed their uniforms, but they're still playing for the same team."

The full report can be read here. http://www.citizensforethics.org/node/43565

In 1999? Government think tanks described it as the most dangerous threat they were facing in the future, presumably because they knew way back then, that the ice was thinning at the poles and melting of Greenland would result in mass migrations all over the world and world war for resources. Since then, the Pentagon has embarked on a number of documented propaganda programs to push for war, and to revise internet history of news stories and photographs. This misdirection of military forces against the media and domain of law-abiding citizens is illegal and not what the pentagon was established for.

(In the above paragraph, if you can find the old articles that stated this, please update the page.)




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